Alphabet Soup.

Philip Kotler
Marketing Management
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Key Takeaways
In this article the author discusses a marketing framework developed by Jerry McCarthy in his book "Basic Marketing." The framework, known as "the four Ps" are product, price, place and promotion. The 7 Ps added 3 Ps, personnel, process and physical evidence. The author suggests adding politics and public opinion. Attempts have been made to replace the 4Ps with the 4Cs, customers' needs, cost to customer, convenience and communication. There are the 4As, acceptability, affordability, accessibility and awareness. There are the alternate 4Ps, people, processes, programs and performance, and the 4Rs, receptivity, readiness, resources and risk.

Author Bio:

Philip Kotler
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